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An open simulation approach to identify chances and limitations for vulnerable road user (VRU) active safety

  • It is commonly agreed that active safety will have a significant impact on reducing accident figures for pedestrians and probably also bicyclists. However, chances and limitations for active safety systems have only been derived based on accident data and the current state of the art, based on proprietary simulation models. The objective of this article is to investigate these chances and limitations by developing an open simulation model. This article introduces a simulation model, incorporating accident kinematics, driving dynamics, driver reaction times, pedestrian dynamics, performance parameters of different autonomous emergency braking (AEB) generations, as well as legal and logical limitations. The level of detail for available pedestrian accident data is limited. Relevant variables, especially timing of the pedestrian appearance and the pedestrian's moving speed, are estimated using assumptions. The model in this article uses the fact that a pedestrian and a vehicle in an accident must have been in the same spot at the same time and defines the impact position as a relevant accident parameter, which is usually available from accident data. The calculations done within the model identify the possible timing available for braking by an AEB system as well as the possible speed reduction for different accident scenarios as well as for different system configurations. The simulation model identifies the lateral impact position of the pedestrian as a significant parameter for system performance, and the system layout is designed to brake when the accident becomes unavoidable by the vehicle driver. Scenarios with a pedestrian running from behind an obstruction are the most demanding scenarios and will very likely never be avoidable for all vehicle speeds due to physical limits. Scenarios with an unobstructed person walking will very likely be treatable for a wide speed range for next generation AEB systems.

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Metadaten
Author:Patrick Seiniger, Oliver Bartels, Claus Pastor, Marcus Wisch
Document Type:Article
Language:English
Date of Publication (online):2015/08/31
Release Date:2015/08/31
Tag:Aktives Sicherheitssystem; Automatisch; Bremsung; Fahrer; Fußgänger; Geschwindigkeit; Radfahrer; Reaktionsverhalten; Sicherheit; Simulation; Zusammenstoß
Active safety system; Automatic; Braking; Collision; Cyclist; Driver; Pedestrian; Reaction (human); Safety; Simulation; Speed
Comment:
Volltext: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15389588.2013.797574
Source:Traffic injury prevention. " 14 (2013), Sup 1, 2-12
Institutes:Abteilung Fahrzeugtechnik / Abteilung Fahrzeugtechnik
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 62 Ingenieurwissenschaften / 620 Ingenieurwissenschaften und zugeordnete Tätigkeiten
collections:BASt-Beiträge / ITRD Sachgebiete / 83 Unfall und Mensch
BASt-Beiträge / Tagungen / International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) / 23rd ESV Conference 2013

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