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Assessment of accident causation from the viewpoint of in-depth investigation on scene : traffic psychological methodology on examples of in- depth cases by GIDAS

  • This contribution introduces a number of psychological methods of analysis that are based on the practice-oriented collection of information directly at the site of an accident and that allow for an analysis and coding of the accident causes. Investigation examples and examples of the data combinations with basic medical and technical data are outlined. Objective of the collection is the inter-disciplinary investigation of human factors in the causes of accidents ("human-factor-analysis"). The psychological data are incorporated according to an integrative model for accident causes based on empiric algorithms in the data base of the accident research, where the clustered evaluation potential of comprehensive factors of the accident development can be illustrated. The central theoretical concept for the basic model of the progress of the accident from a psychological point of view comprises psychological indicators for the evaluation of the site of the accident for the analysis of the perception conditions as well as a classification of the gleaned data into the accident progress model according to chronological and local criteria. Perception conditions, action intentions and executions as well as conditions limiting perception and actions are acquired, using a questionnaire for persons involved in an accident, and are also integrated into the data structure concerning weighted feature characteristics as well as combined with other relevant features. Suitable systematization tools for the collection and coding of psychological accident development parameters have to be provided, which require primarily a model image of the corresponding processes from the persons involved in the accident (perceptions, expectations, decisions, actions). The interactive accident model contains components of the models by KÜTING 1990, MC DONALD 1972, SURREY 1969 and RASMUSSEN 1980. Based on the inter-action of the three partial systems "person", "vehicle" and "environment", the first step is the assessment of the situation by the persons involved in the accident. This is dependent on the personal attitudes and motives, on experiences and expectations concerning the progress of the situation. Subsequently, data concerning the manner of the coping with the ambiguous state as well as with the instable state (emergency reaction immediately before the accident occurs) are collected. The factors relating to the persons involved in the accident are gathered on several levels using corresponding questionnaires. The coding of the found and collected characteristics is conducted in a multidimensional evaluation relating to the technical results of the accident reconstruction and of the psychological classification, which are subsequently integrated in coded form into the data base of the accident research. The result of this analysis is a description of the development of the accident depicted on a chronological vector from a perception and decision theoretical perspective. This is explained in detail using exemplary cases.

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Author:P. Pund, Dietmar Otte
Document Type:Conference Proceeding
Date of Publication (online):2012/08/01
Contributing corporation:Medizinische Hochschule Hannover / Forschungs- und Lehreinheit Medizinische Psychologie
Release Date:2012/08/01
Tag:Bewertung; Datenbank; Deutschland; Interaktives Modell; Konferenz; Psychologische Gesichtspunkte; Unfall; Untersuchung am Unfallort; Ursache
Accident; Cause; Conference; Data base; Evaluation (assessment); Germany; Interactive model; On the spot accident investigation; Psychological aspects
Weitere beteiligte Körperschaft: Medizinische Hochschule Hannover / Verkehrsunfallforschung
Source:1st International Conference on ESAR "Expert Symposium on Accident Research", S. 236-249
Institutes:Sonstige / Sonstige
Dewey Decimal Classification:3 Sozialwissenschaften / 36 Soziale Probleme, Sozialdienste / 360 Soziale Probleme und Sozialdienste; Verbände
collections:BASt-Beiträge / ITRD Sachgebiete / 80 Unfallforschung
BASt-Beiträge / ITRD Sachgebiete / 83 Unfall und Mensch
BASt-Beiträge / Tagungen / International Conference on ESAR / 1st International Conference on ESAR

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