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Improved thoracic injury risk functions for the THOR-M-50 developed in a new simulation-based approach

  • To assess occupant safety in a crash test, criteria associating the measurements made with a crash test dummy to injury risk are necessary. To enable better protection of elderly car occupants the objective of this study was to develop improved thoracic injury criteria for the THOR average male dummy. The development of these criteria is usually based on matched dummy and Post Mortem Human Surrogate (PMHS) tests by relating the obtained PMHS injuries to dummy measurements. This approach is limited, since only a few tests in relevant loading conditions are available and any new test series requires high efforts to be performed due to their complexity and costs. To overcome these limitations and to extend the dataset for the development of THOR dummy chest injury risk functions a simulation-based approach was applied within the EC funded project SENIORS (Safety Enhanced Innovations For older Road Users - www.seniors-project.eu). Within this study frontal impact sled simulations with an FE model representing a THOR average male dummy and matched simulations with a human body model (HBM) representing an elderly car occupant were carried out. The HBM used for this study was the THUMS TUC with modified rib cage, which was developed in SENIORS. The modifications included material and geometry changes aiming to represent an elderly car occupant. The rib fracture risk was predicted with a deterministic approach whereby a rib was considered broken when the strain exceeded an age-dependent threshold. Furthermore, a probabilistic method was applied to predict the probability of sustaining a certain number of fractured ribs by comparing local strain values to the distribution of cortical rib ultimate strain. By relating the output from the HBM simulations to a multi-point dummy injury criterion, injury risk curves were calculated by statistical methods. The wide range of loading conditions resulted in the desired range of injuries and THOR ATD output. The number of fractured ribs predicted by the HBM based on the deterministic prediction method was between 0 and 15. Furthermore, the probabilistic risk for the number of rib fractures equal or greater than two, three or four was calculated for each load case. The THOR rib deflection criterion Rmax was between 18 and 56 mm, while the PC Score was in the range of 2.5 to 7.2. Based on these outputs new risk curves for the predicted deterministic (AIS2+/3+) and probabilistic injury risk were calculated. The new curves show reasonable shapes and significance that provide trust in their application. The new risk curves are compared to risk curves obtained by traditional methods. The results were found similar to previous injury risk functions based on physical tests, which gives a high level of confidence in the chosen approach. The simulation-based approach of matched ATD model vs. HBM simulation was successfully applied. Rmax curves show a slightly better quality than the injury criterion PC Score.

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Author:Andre EggersORCiD, Marcus WischORCiD, Matthias SchießlerORCiD, Bengt Pipkorn, Krystoffer Mroz, David Hynd
Parent Title (English):26th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV) , Eindhoven), 2019
Publisher:National Highway Traffic Safety Administration
Place of publication:Washington, D.C.
Document Type:Conference Proceeding
Date of Publication (online):2019/10/15
Date of first publication:2019/10/16
Publishing institution:Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen (BASt)
Contributing corporation:Autoliv Research
Release Date:2019/10/16
Tag:Alte Leute; Berechnung; Bewertung; Brustkorb; Crash Test; Dummy; Knochenbruch; Methode der finiten Elemente; Prognose; Risiko; Sicherheit; Simulation; Verletzung
Anthropometric dummy; Calculation; Evaluation (assessment); Finite element method; Forecast; Fracture (bone); Impact test (crash); Injury; Old people; Risk; Safety; Simulation; Thorax
Number of pages:15
Außerdem beteiligt: TRL
Volltext: http://indexsmart.mirasmart.com/26esv/PDFfiles/26ESV-000308.pdf
Institutes:Abteilung Fahrzeugtechnik
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 62 Ingenieurwissenschaften / 620 Ingenieurwissenschaften und zugeordnete Tätigkeiten
Licence (German):License LogoBASt / Link zum Urhebergesetz

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