Severe abdominal injuries for car occupants in frontal impact

  • In most of developed countries, the progress made in passive safety during the last three decades allowed to drastically reduce the number of killed and severely injured especially for occupants of passenger cars. This reduction is mainly observed for frontal impacts for which the AIS3+ injuries has been reduced about 52% for drivers and 38% for front passengers. The stiffening of the cars' structure coupled with the generalization of airbags and the improvement of the seatbelt restraint (load limiter, pretension, etc.) allowed to protect vital body regions such as head, neck and thorax. However, the abdomen did not take advantage with so much success of this progress. The objective of this study is to draw up an inventory on the abdominal injuries of the belted car occupants involved in frontal impact, to present adapted counter-measures and to assess their potential effectiveness. In the first part the stakes corresponding to the abdominal injuries will be defined according to types of impact, seat location, occupants' age and type of injured organs. Then, we shall focus on the abdominal injury risk curves for adults involved in frontal impact and on the comparisons of the average risks according to the seat location. In the second part we will list counter-measures and we shall calculate their effectiveness. The method of case control will be used in order to estimate odds ratio, comparing two samples, given by occupants having or not having the studied safety system. For this study, two type of data sources are used: national road injured accident census and retrospective in-depth accident data collection. Abdominal injuries are mainly observed in frontal impact (52%). Fatal or severe abdominal occupant- injuries are observed at least in 27% of cases, ranking this body region as the most injured just after the thorax (51%). In spite of a twice lower occupation rate in the back seats compared to the front seats, the number of persons sustaining abdominal injuries at the rear place is higher than in the front place. In recent cars, the risk of having a serious or fatal abdominal injury in a frontal impact is 1.6% for the driver, 3.6% for the front passenger and 6.3% for the rear occupants. The most frequently hurt organs are the small intestine (17%), the spleen (16%) and the liver (13%). The most common countermeasures have a good efficiency in the reduction of the abdominal injuries for the adults: the stiffness of the structure of the seats allows decreasing the abdominal injury risk from 54% (driver) to 60% (front occupant), the seatbelt pretensioners decrease also this risk from 90% (driver) to 83% (front passenger).

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Author:T. Hermitte, M. Labrousse, S. Cuny
Document Type:Conference Proceeding
Date of Publication (online):2017/10/16
Contributing corporation:Laboratory of Accidentology Biomechanic and Human behavior (Nanterre)
Release Date:2017/10/16
Tag:Analyse (math); Deutschland; Frontalzusammenstoß; Insasse; Konferenz; Passives Sicherheitssystem; Pkw; Schweregrad (Unfall; Sicherheitsgurt; Unterleib; Verletzung; Verletzung)
Abdomen; Analysis (math); Car; Conference; Germany; Head on collision; Inertia reel safety belt; Injury; Lap strap; Occupant (veh); Passenger; Passive safety system; Safety harness; Seat belt; Seat harness; Severity (accid; injury)
Außerdem beteiligt: Centre Européen d'Etudes et Sécurité et d'Analyse des Risques, Nanterre
Source:7th International Conference on ESAR "Expert Symposium on Accident Research" 2016
Institutes:Sonstige / Sonstige
Dewey Decimal Classification:6 Technik, Medizin, angewandte Wissenschaften / 62 Ingenieurwissenschaften / 620 Ingenieurwissenschaften und zugeordnete Tätigkeiten
collections:BASt-Beiträge / ITRD Sachgebiete / 84 Personenschäden
BASt-Beiträge / ITRD Sachgebiete / 91 Fahrzeugkonstruktion
BASt-Beiträge / Tagungen / International Conference on ESAR / 7th International Conference on ESAR

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