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Sicherheit im Reisebusverkehr

Coach traffic safety

Färber, Berthold ; Heinrich, Hanns Christian ; Hundhausen, Gerd ; Hütter, Gerhard ; Kamm, Heiner ; Mörl, Gunther ; Winkler, Wolfgang


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Freie Schlagwörter (Deutsch): Bus , Fahrausbildung , Fahrer , Gesetzgebung , Öffentlichkeitsarbeit , Schweregrad (unfall, verletzung) , Sicherheit , Unfall , Unfallhäufigkeit , Unfallverhütung
Freie Schlagwörter (Englisch): Accident , Accident prevention , Accident rate , Bus , Driver , Driver training , Legislation , Public relations , Safety , Severity (accid, injury)
Collection 1: BASt-Beiträge / ITRD Sachgebiete / 91 Fahrzeugkonstruktion
Collection 2: BASt-Beiträge / ITRD Sachgebiete / 10 Wirtschaft und Verwaltung
Collection 3: BASt-Beiträge / ITRD Sachgebiete / 83 Unfall und Mensch
Collection 4: BASt-Beiträge / ITRD Sachgebiete / 73 Verkehrsregelung
Institut: Abteilung Verhalten und Sicherheit im Verkehr
DDC-Sachgruppe: Soziale Probleme, Sozialarbeit
Dokumentart: Buch (Monographie)
Schriftenreihe: Berichte der Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen, Reihe M: Mensch und Sicherheit
Bandnummer: 40
ISBN: 3-89429-598-8
Sprache: Deutsch
Erstellungsjahr: 1995
Publikationsdatum: 06.08.2015
Kurzfassung auf Deutsch: Nach einer Reisebusunfallserie im Jahre 1992 wurde die Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen beauftragt ein Expertengespräch durchzuführen und eine Projektgruppe einzurichten, um Schwachstellen im Sicherheitssystem des Reisebusverkehrs aufzudecken, Verbesserungsvorschläge zu erarbeiten und den Forschungsbedarf zu identifizieren. Der Beitrag befasst sich schwerpunktmäßig mit den ökonomischen Rahmenbedingungen und der Sicherheit, den Ausbildungs- und Eignungsfragen der Busfahrer, deren Belastung und Beanspruchung, der Einhaltung und Kontrolle von Vorschriften, der Erhöhung der kraftfahrzeugtechnischen Sicherheit sowie dem Notfall- und Unfallmanagement. Zur Weiterentwicklung des Sicherheitssystems wird eine auf breite Mitwirkung auch von Beteiligten angelegte Sicherheitsforschung für den Wirtschaftsverkehr empfohlen. Aus den untersuchten Feldern werden Empfehlungen abgeleitet und der notwendige Forschungsbedarf aufgeführt.
Kurzfassung auf Englisch: After a series of bus accidents in 1992, the Federal Highway Research Institute (BASt) was commissioned by the Federal Ministry of Transport to organize an expert discussion and establish a project group to look into the possible existence of weak points in the bus safety system, work out proposals for improvement as well as identifying, issues requiring further research. Based on the results of the expert discussion, a safety analysis has been carried out by the project group. The analysis revealed that organizational measures are needed most. They should be provided by the state in terms of operational framework conditions and, as a consequence, by the bus companies as well. The creation of free market framework conditions (Chapter 4), the treatment of training, aptitude, and workload questions (Chapter 5), but also the enforcement of standards (Chapter 7), and control of vehicle safety (Chapter 8) should be guided by the following principle: lt is not up to the driver to adjust to a poorly organized system. To the contrary, what should be focused on is the priority issue of creating humane working conditions designed to prevent mistakes or compensate for them. In the design of free market framework conditions, serious shortcomings were found to exist in the following areas: - entry conditions for companies; - legal requirements as to the qualification of the management and managerial characteristics; - market regulating arrangements (until recently); and - infrastructure conditions facilitating bus traffic. Due to these shortcomings, safety-oriented behaviours of bus companies are made more difficult, are not sufficiently supported and too little promoted. Quality assurance is a new instrument which, supported by selective incentives, will lead to new parameters that can be applied to the state's safety policies and a new type of safety strategy. Training measures may not be restricted to the definition of lessons required for each training element. lt is important that they are also based on the relevant educational theories. As regards professional driver training, the possibility of lowering the legal age for driving licences should be checked to better not only the training opportunities for those leaving school, but also the opportunities of bus companies for hiring drivers with the qualifications required in these times of changing transport and market conditions. General aptitude tests (MPU) should be only carried out on older drivers (aged. 55 years and over). As regards the organization of the working conditions, breaks and shifts should be so planned as to reduce the load on drivers as much as possible. Attention also needs to be paid to the tasks assigned to drivers to avoid monotony. Due to the improvement of control mechanisms (frequent checks to make sure that safety standards are observed, extension of sanctions and manipulation-proof control devices), the state will have the central responsibility for the following: - equal competitive opportunities; - prevention of cut-throat competition and unfair trade practices in conjunction with risky operational practices; - creation of assuredly humane working conditions for bus drivers to promote safety. In view of what has been achieved in respect of vehicle safety, future efforts should concentrate on implementing the results obtained, developing driver aids to further reduce risks, and investigate and implement passive safety measures compatible with modern standards. The project group has made numerous recommendations on these points. In order to improve the management of emergencies and accidents, the project group recommended the establishment of a major accident management network and an analysis of weak points to optimize emergency exit systems in busses. For improvements to the safety system, safety research efforts on a wide basis, also by the staff of the industry concerned has been recommended for the transport sector.