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Examination of pollutants emitted by vehicles in operation and of emission relevant components - Replacement catalytic converters

Schmidt, Helge ; Johannsen, Ralf

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Freie Schlagwörter (Englisch): Alternative , Car , Catalytic converter , Compliance (specif) , Durability , Emission , Exhaust aftertreatment , Germany , In service behavior , Measurement , Research report , Test , Vehicle , Vehicle regulations
Collection: BASt-Beiträge / ITRD Sachgebiete / 95 Technische Überwachung
Institut: Sonstige
DDC-Sachgruppe: Ingenieurwissenschaften
Sonstige beteiligte Institution: Institut für Fahrzeugtechnik und Mobilität (Hannover)
Dokumentart: Buch (Monographie)
Schriftenreihe: Berichte der Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen, Reihe F: Fahrzeugtechnik
Bandnummer: 106b
ISBN: 978-3-95606-194-3
Sprache: Englisch
Erstellungsjahr: 2015
Publikationsdatum: 29.04.2016
Kurzfassung auf Englisch: High demands on exhaust emissions of passenger cars and light commercial vehicles require complex technologies. The three-way catalytic converter is an essential part of state of the art emission control systems. If a catalytic converter is damaged or its effectiveness deteriorates, it can be replaced by a replacement converter. Replacement catalytic converters from the aftermarket are approved on the basis of Regulation No 103 of the UNECE - United Nations Economic Commission for Europe. According to this regulation the replacement catalytic converter shall be designed, constructed and capable of being mounted so as to enable the vehicle to comply with the provisions taken as a basis for its type approval. Furthermore the pollution emissions must be effectively limited throughout the entire normal service life of the vehicle under normal operating conditions. In the context of the research project, the durability of replacement catalytic converters was examined. A VW Golf with emission standard Euro 4, 1.4 l petrol engine (55 kW) was selected as a test vehicle. At the start of the examinations, the vehicle showed a mileage of 75,000 km. The selected vehicle was regularly serviced in accordance with the manufacturer's specifications. No emission-relevant faults were recorded by the OBD system. The initial control measurement of the vehicle in as-delivered condition with the originally installed catalytic converter showed that the corresponding emissions of the regulated pollutants were considerably below the Euro 4 emission limits to be applied. Subsequently, an original replacement catalytic converter, which was purchased from an authorised dealer, and 4 catalytic converters purchased in the independent aftermarket, were examined. The replacement catalytic converters were conditioned according to the specifications of ECE Regulation No 103 and then measured in new condition. The catalytic converters were then aged on a burner test rig. Here a total mileage of 80,000 km was simulated. After 10,000 km and 40,000 km, the ageing was interrupted and the exhaust gas emissions of the test vehicle with the aged catalytic converters were measured. The examination was ended as soon as a limit value had been exceeded. The results of the project indicate that with the replacement systems for the after-treatment of exhaust gases available in the independent aftermarket, considerable quality differences can occur. At the end of the ageing over a distance of 80,000 km only the original replacement catalytic converter and one replacement catalytic converter from the independent aftermarket complied with the Euro 4 emission limits. With one replacement catalytic converter, the Euro 4 emission limits were already exceeded in new condition. With another replacement catalytic converter, the examination was aborted after 10,000 km ageing and with a further catalytic converter after 40,000 km ageing due to the Euro 4 emission limits being exceeded. The ECE Regulation No 103 provides for a test of durability of such systems over 80,000 km, but also alternatively enables the use of fixed deterioration factors. In practice, the durability of the replacement systems for the after-treatment of exhaust gases is guaranteed by their manufacturers. However, replacement catalytic converters are rarely inspected as part of the approval. In-use compliance provisions for replacement systems for the after-treatment of exhaust gases are not mentioned in the corresponding specifications. The results of this study indicate that the requirements in the ECE Regulation No 103 are not adequate to ensure the durability of replacement catalytic converters.