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Erfahrungsbildung von Verkehrsteilnehmern

Echterhoff, Wilfried


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Freie Schlagwörter (Deutsch): Entwicklung , Erfahrung (menschl) , Verhalten , Verkehrsteilnehmer
Freie Schlagwörter (Englisch): Behaviour , Development , Experience (human) , Road user
Collection: BASt-Beiträge / ITRD Sachgebiete / 83 Unfall und Mensch
Institut: Abteilung Verhalten und Sicherheit im Verkehr
DDC-Sachgruppe: Psychologie
Dokumentart: Buch (Monographie)
Schriftenreihe: Forschungsberichte der Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen
Bandnummer: 254
Sprache: Deutsch
Erstellungsjahr: 1992
Publikationsdatum: 28.05.2015
Kurzfassung auf Deutsch: Die Arbeit versteht Erfahrungsbildung als kognitive und motivationale Auseinandersetzung eines Individuums mit den Gegebenheiten seiner Welt und mit sich selbst. Erfahrungsbildung wird hierbei als Prozess mit Entwicklung neuer Handlungsmöglichkeiten dargestellt. Der Begriff der Erfahrung dagegen wird als Ergebnis des Erfahrens verstanden. Es werden Prozessformen, externale und internale Bedingungen von Erfahrungsbildung an acht Beispielen beschrieben: Durch Argumente und Hinweise anderer, aufgrund von Zwang und vermeintlicher Unabänderlichkeit, als Folge von Gewöhnung und Geschehenlassen, wegen einer Belohnung, durch Reflexion, durch Übernahme von Modell-Verhalten sowie durch sozialen Vergleich, wegen Furcht und Leidensdruck und schließlich durch subjektive Erklärung von Ereignissen. Die vorgestellten Beispiele von Erfahrungsbildung werden theoretisch und empirisch fundiert.
Kurzfassung auf Englisch: Understanding and also organizing the taking of influence on road user behaviour in accordance with the basic concept of the traditional teacher-pupil relationship can consider only part of the conditions leading to behavioural modification, for in road traffic other conditions apply than the ones in a formal place of learning. In addition, it has to be kept in mind that learning by comprehension is one of the most difficult forms of learning and hardly conceivable of success in informal conditions. The objective of this paper is using the term 'experience' for the problems encountered in road traffic. Shaping experience is understood as an individual's cognitive and motivational grappling with his/her world's conditions and with him/herself. The concept presented of shaping experience considers more consequently than does the cognitively oriented learning concept the effects of interpreting evaluative conditions on changes in the readiness for action. Shaping experience is a process in which new possibilities of action are developed; it can also be referred to as process of experiencing. In contrast to that, the term 'experience' means the result of shaping experience. In addition, the paper describes forms of processes as well as external and internal conditions of shaping experience. Eight examples are examined. In these examples, experience is shaped - by arguments and hints given by others, - by coercion and the assumption of inevitability - as a consequence of habits and letting things go, - by reflexion, - by the adoption of model behaviour and social comparison, - because of fear and suffering, or - by subjectively explaining events. The examples given are theoretically and empirically well-founded. If a road safety action aims at a change in attitudes, the attitudes addressed are assumed to be somehow responsible for causing the action. It is not known, however, if traffic-related attitudes ever were checked with respect to their causal explanation value. In the majority of such attitudes, however, it is probably doubtful that it is explicative constructs we are dealing with. It can be made clear that road user experience is mainly shaped informally and based on specific events. It is in the complexity of road traffic in industrial nations-- where road user interactions hardly ever cease--that processes of shaping experience dominate which might be accessed best in a sociopsychological approach. Thus far, however, this has been neglected. The state of the art does not provide any safe parameters to build upon in order to assess the magnitude of the effects attained by road safety programmes to influence behaviour. However, the general problem of judging effects might be eliminated by planning and evaluation measures oriented toward criteria. Even though the concept of shaping experience had been developed based mainly on behaviour in road traffic, it certainly would be applicable to other spheres of life as well because road traffic cannot claim occupying a special position despite the specific risks it entails.